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    民俗和詩詞中端午的文化內涵
    日期:2019-06-06 19:12:08  來源:友情轉載    字號: T | T

      槐幄如云,榴花半吐,又是一年端午將至。農歷五月初五,是我們中華民族的傳統節日——端午節,又稱端陽節、重五節等。端午節期間,各地民眾包粽子、賽龍舟、佩香囊、懸艾草菖蒲等,習俗名目繁多,因地而異。
     
      那么,在豐富多樣的端午習俗背后,承載著怎樣的文化記憶和精神內涵?我們今天過端午節,它的現實意義在哪里?
     
      這要從端午節的由來說起。端午節歷史悠久,距今已有至少兩千年的歷史。目前,關于端午節的起源,學界說法不一。其中,影響力最大的兩種說法是起源于惡日禁忌和紀念屈原,此外還有紀念吳國名相伍子胥、晉國名士介子推、越王勾踐、孝女曹娥,以及起源于龍圖騰等說法。
     
      古人認為,五月是“陰陽爭,死生分”的月份。農歷五月是夏至所在之月,日照時間最長。夏至到來要開始數伏,氣候特點是高溫高濕。這也是暑熱難挨,各種疾患、時疫流行的季節,很容易對人體造成傷害。
     
      為了辟毒逐疫,保證人類生命的安全,人們開展了豐富多樣的民俗活動,為戰勝即將到來的疾疫做好充分準備,以便順利度過這個季節。中國古代詩詞中對這些民俗活動有豐富的記載。歐陽修《漁家傲》:“正是浴蘭時節動,菖蒲酒美清尊共。”五月五,古人沐蘭湯浴,飲菖蒲葉浸制的藥酒,以驅疾疫。蘇軾《浣溪沙·端午》:“彩線輕纏紅玉臂,小符斜掛綠云鬟。”五月五,人們以五彩絲線系手臂,名之為長命縷;胸前佩掛符箓,以避災邪。陸游《乙卯重五詩》:“重五山村好,榴花忽已繁。粽包分兩髻,艾束著危冠。舊俗方儲藥,羸軀亦點丹。日斜吾事畢,一笑向杯盤。”詩中寫到了端午節吃粽子、掛艾葉、采草藥、喝端午酒等蠲除毒氣的習俗。從明清各地的地方志中,亦能窺見端午習俗,如《烏青鎮志》:“端午節”,堂上懸張真人像,或關圣、鐘馗像,門插葵艾,食角黍,飲菖蒲酒。《績溪縣志》:“端午日”,戶懸蒲艾以辟邪。堂懸朱符,掛鐘馗,瓶供榴花、蜀葵之屬。端午懸掛鐘馗畫像,以驅邪避瘟,同時寄寓迎福禎祥之意。這就是端午節,一個本義是禳災逐疫的節日,也是一個公共衛生的節日。
     
      在魏晉南北朝時期,人們將食粽、龍舟競渡和屈原聯系起來,對端午節俗進行新的詮釋。這種詮釋是民眾歷史情感和歷史觀念的體現。南朝梁吳均的《續齊諧記》載:“屈原五月五日投汨羅而死,楚人哀之,每至此日,竹筒貯米投水祭之……可以楝樹葉塞其上,以五彩絲約之,此二物蛟龍所憚也。”粽子原是端午節投向水中祭祀屈原的供品,粽子投入水里常被蛟龍所竊,所以要用“蛟龍所憚”的楝葉包裹、五色絲纏繞。如歐陽修《漁家傲》:“五月榴花妖艷烘,綠楊帶雨垂垂重,五色新絲纏角粽。”
     
      就像春節的餃子、年糕,中秋節的月餅一樣,粽子是端午節具有文化符號意義的食品。此外,黃魚、黃鱔、黃瓜、咸蛋黃和雄黃酒合稱“五黃”,也是中國江南地區端午節的重要食品。
     
      南朝梁宗懔的《荊楚歲時記》載:“五月五日競渡,俗為屈原投汨羅日,傷其死所,并命舟楫以拯之,舸舟取其輕利,謂之飛鳧。一自以為水軍,一自以為水馬。州將及土人悉臨水而觀之。”端午龍舟競渡是因為人們舍不得屈原投江而逝,爭先恐后劃船拯救,表達搶救屈原的愿望。明人邊貢在《午日觀競渡》中寫道:“共駭群龍水上游,不知原是木蘭舟。云旗獵獵翻青漢,雷鼓嘈嘈殷碧流。屈子冤魂終古在,楚鄉遺俗至今留。江亭暇日堪高會,醉諷離騷不解愁。”云旗獵獵,鼓聲震天,眾多龍舟如離弦之箭,爭先恐后,氣勢驚人,畫面感極強。接下來頸聯便寫道,龍舟競渡是楚鄉遺俗,為了紀念負屈含冤而死的屈原。
     
      如今,賽龍舟已被列入國家級非遺名錄,龍舟比賽也由群眾性的紀念活動發展成競技體育。它所傳遞的團結協作、勇往直前的精神,讓這項運動擁有了持久鮮活的生命力。
     
      屈原是戰國時期楚懷王的大臣,以卓絕的治國才華得到了楚懷王的倚重,任左徒、三閭大夫,兼管內政外交大事。屈原提倡“美政”,主張對內舉賢任能,修明法度,對外力主聯齊抗秦。因遭貴族排擠毀謗,先后被流放至漢北和沅湘流域。后來楚國都被秦攻破,屈原悲憤交加,自沉于汨羅江。
     
      屈原不與世俗同流合污的高潔之志,以及對國家、民族那種萬劫不移的忠貞之行,震撼了整個民族的心靈。蘇軾《六幺令·天中節》:“虎符纏臂,佳節又端午。門前艾蒲青翠,天淡紙鳶舞。粽葉香飄十里,對酒攜樽俎。龍舟爭渡,助威吶喊,憑吊祭江誦君賦。感嘆懷王昏聵,悲戚秦吞楚。異客垂涕淫淫,鬢白知幾許?朝夕新亭對泣,淚竭陵陽處。汨羅江渚,湘累已逝,惟有萬千斷腸句。”上片寫虎符纏臂、門掛艾蒲、紙鳶飛舞、粽葉飄香、龍舟競渡、憑吊屈原等端午習俗,宛在目前;下片寫屈原已逝,只留下《離騷》《天問》等令人斷腸的輝煌詩篇。詩人扼腕嘆息,痛惜屈原的離去,想見屈原之遭際和為人。張耒的《和端午》:“競渡深悲千載冤,忠魂一去詎能還。國亡身殞今何有,只留離騷在世間。”詩人因忠魂一去不返而銜淚含悲,隨之筆鋒一轉,屈原留下了彪炳千古、蕩氣回腸的絕唱《離騷》,這是不朽的豐碑。文天祥在《端午即事》中自白:“五月五日午,贈我一枝艾。故人不可見,新知萬里外。丹心照夙昔,鬢發日已改。我欲從靈均,三湘隔遼海。”表達了文天祥對屈原的深切認同,以及堅貞不渝的愛國之情。
     
      端午節前后,各地常常涌現“端午詩歌朗誦會”“端午詩歌大賽”,這也是一種與古人建立精神聯結的方式。希望在詩歌的指引下,我們的生活能持續地醞釀和生發堅毅的德性與美好的精神追求。
     
      2008年起,端午節成為國家法定節假日。2009年,端午節進入人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄。在今天,我們憑借上述豐富多樣的、處于不斷變化中的端午民俗形式,去感受端午節的文化內涵,體認自己的文化身份,傳承節日的歷史記憶,維系群體的文化認同,增強中華民族的向心力和凝聚力。(作者:崔現芳 來源: 農民日報)
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